Thursday

Secure Computer: What is Android Operating System ?

What is Android Operating System ?

What is Android Operating System ?

Android Application
What is android ?

Hello , so many people are using a Android Os Phone, but tell me about WHAT IS ANDROID ? The ANS is

It's cool Phone, Cool Application, Great Phone but what is Android ? here it is ..


1. Android Operating system is a multi user Linux system in which each applicaion
   is a different user.

2. Each process has its own virutal machine(VM) , so an application code runs in isolation from
   Other applicaion.

3.Android Graphics are powered by a custom 2D graphics library and OpenGL Es 1.0 for high performance 3D graphics.
  The most common 2D graphics APIs can be found in drwable package.


In this way, the Android system implements the principle of least privilege. That is, each application, by default, has access only to the components that it requires to do its work and no more. This creates a very secure environment in which an application cannot access parts of the system for which it is not given permission.

HTC Inspire 4G Android Phone (AT&T)HTC EVO 4G Android Phone (Sprint)T-Mobile G2 with Google Android Phone (T-Mobile)
More  Android 
Systemctc Hacking Basic Guide
How to Crack Admin PasswordSearch Amazon.com for android sony

Sony Ericsson XPERIA X10 Mini Pro (U20i) Unlocked GSM Android Smartphone with 5MP Camera, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Touch Screen, QWERTY Keyboard--International Version with No US Warranty (Black)Sony Ericsson Xperia PLAY Android Phone (Verizon Wireless) 


Simple Guide to the Best Android Apps
A Simpler Guide to the best free Android Apps: 100+ apps to inform, entertain and organise

Secure Computer: Hacking Basic Guide

Systemctc Hacking Basic Guide

Hacking Basic Guide

Systemctc Hacking Basic Guide
WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF HACKING! WE, THE PEOPLE WHO LIVE OUTSIDE OF
THE NORMAL RULES, AND HAVE BEEN SCORNED AND EVEN ARRESTED BY THOSE FROM THE 'CIVILIZED WORLD', ARE BECOMMING  SCARCER EVERY DAY.  THIS IS DUE TO THE
GREATER FEAR OF WHAT A GOOD HACKER (SKILL WISE, NO MORAL JUDGEMENTS HERE)
CAN DO NOWADAYS, THUS CAUSING ANTI- HACKER SENTIMENT IN THE MASSES.
ALSO, FEW HACKERS SEEM TO ACTUALLY KNOW ABOUT THE COMPUTER SYSTEMS THEY HACK, OR WHAT EQUIPMENT THEY WILL RUN INTO ON THE FRONT END, OR WHAT THEY COULD DO WRONG ON A SYSTEM TO ALERT THE 'HIGHER' AUTHORITIES WHO MONITOR THE SYSTEM. THIS ARTICLE IS INTENDED TO TELL YOU ABOUT SOME THINGS NOT TO DO, EVEN BEFORE YOU GET ON THE SYSTEM.  WE WILL TELL YOU ABOUT THE NEW WAVE OF FRONT END SECURITY DEVICES THAT ARE BEGINNING TO BE USED ON COMPUTERS. WE WILL ATTEMPT TO INSTILL IN YOU A SECOND IDENTITY, TO BE BROUGHT UP AT TIME OF GREAT NEED, TO PULL YOU OUT OF TROUBLE. AND, BY THE WAY, WE TAKE NO, REPEAT, NO, RESPONCIBILITY FOR WHAT WE SAY IN THIS AND THE FORTHCOMING ARTICLES. ENOUGH OF THE BULLSHIT, ON TO THE FUNAFTER LOGGING ON YOUR FAVORITE BBS,
YOU SEE ON THE HIGH ACCESS BOARD A PHONE NUMBER!  IT SAYS IT'S A GREAT
SYSTEM TO "FUCK AROUND WITH!" THIS MAY BE TRUE, BUT HOW MANY OTHER
PEOPLE ARE GOING TO CALL THE SAME NUMBER?  SO:  TRY TO AVOID CALLING A
NUMBER GIVEN TO THE PUBLIC.  THIS IS BECAUSE THERE ARE AT LEAST EVERY OTHER
USER CALLING, AND HOW MANY OTHER BOARDS WILL THAT NUMBER SPREAD TO?
IF YOU CALL A NUMBER FAR, FAR AWAY, AND YOU PLAN ON GOING THRU AN EXTENDER OR A RE-SELLER, DON'T KEEP CALLING THE SAME ACCESS NUMBER (I.E. AS YOU WOULD IF YOU HAD A HACKER RUNNING), THIS LOOKS VERY SUSPICIOUS AND CAN MAKE LIFE MISERABLE WHEN THE PHONE BILL COMES IN THE MAIL.  MOST CITIES HAVE
A VARIETY OF ACCESS NUMBERS AND
Hacking Article

SERVICES, SO USE AS MANY AS YOU CAN. NEVER TRUST A CHANGE IN THE SYSTEM...
THE 414'S, THE ASSHOLES, WERE CAUGHT FOR THIS REASON:  WHEN ONE OF THEM
CONNECTED TO THE SYSTEM, THERE WAS NOTHING GOOD THERE.  THE NEXT TIME,
THERE WAS A TREK GAME STUCK RIGHT IN THEIR WAY!  THEY PROCEDED TO PLAY SAID
GAME FOR TWO, SAY TWO AND A HALF HO URS, WHILE TELENET WAS TRACING THEM!  NICE JOB, DON'T YOU THINK?  IF ANYTHING LOOKS SUSPICIOUS, DROP THE LINE
IMMEDIATELY!!  AS IN, YESTERDAY!! THE POINT WE'RE TRYING TO GET ACCROSS
IS:  IF YOU USE A LITTLE COMMON SENCE, YOU WON'T GET BUSTED.  LET THE LITTLE
KIDS WHO AREN'T SMART ENOUGH TO RECOGNIZE A TRAP GET BUSTED, IT WILL
TAKE THE HEAT OFF OF THE REAL HACKERS. NOW, LET'S SAY YOU GET ON A COMPUTER
SYSTEM...  IT LOOKS GREAT, CHECKS OUT, EVERYTHING SEEMS FINE.  OK, NOW
IS WHEN IT GETS MORE DANGEROUS.  YOU HAVE TO KNOW THE COMPUTER SYSTEM (SEE FUTURE ISSUES OF THIS ARTICLE FOR INFO ON SPECIFIC SYSTEMS) TO KNOW WHAT NOT TO DO.  BASICALLY, KEEP AWAY FROM ANY COMMAND WHICH LOOKS LIKE IT MIGHT DELETE SOMETHING, COPY A NEW FILE INTO
THE ACCOUNT, OR WHATEVER!  ALWAYS LEAVE
THE ACCOUNT IN THE SAME STATUS YOU
LOGGED IN WITH.  CHANGE _NOTHING_... IF IT ISN'T AN ACCOUNT WITH PRIV'S,
THEN DON'T TRY ANY COMMANDS THAT REQUIRE THEM!  ALL, YES ALL, SYSTEMS
ARE GOING TO BE KEEPING LOG FILES OF WHAT USERS ARE DOING, AND THAT WILL
SHOW UP.  IT IS JUST LIKE DROPPING A TROUBLE-CARD IN AN ESS SYSTEM, AFTER
SENDING THAT NICE OPERATOR A PRET TY TONE.  SPEND NO EXCESSIVE AMOUNTS OF
TIME ON THE ACCOUNT IN ONE STRETCH. KEEP YOUR CALLING TO THE VERY LATE
NIGHT IF POSSIBLE, OR DURING BUSINESS HOURS (BELIEVE IT OR NOT!).  IT SO
HAPPENS THAT THERE ARE MORE USERS ON DURING BUSINESS HOURS, AND IT IS VERY
DIFFICULT TO READ A LOG FILE WITH 60 USERS DOING MANY COMMNDS EVERY
MINUTE.  TRY TO AVOID SYSTEMS WHERE EVERYONE KNOWS EACH OTHER, DON'T TRY
TO BLUFF.  AND ABOVE ALL:  NEVER ACT LIKE YOU OWN THE SYSTEM, OR ARE THE
BEST THERE IS.  THEY ALWAYS GRAB THE PEOPLE WHO'S HEADS SWELL...
THERE IS SOME VERY INTERESTING FRONT END EQUIPMENT AROUND NOWADAYS, BUT
FIRST LET'S DEFINE TERMS...BY FRONT END, WE MEAN ANY DEVICE THAT
YOU MUST PASS THRU TO GET AT THE REAL COMPUTER.  THERE ARE DEVICES THAT ARE
MADE TO DEFEAT HACKER PROGRAMS, AND JUST PLAIN OLD MULTIPLEXERS.
TO DEFEAT HACKER PROGRAMS, THERE ARE NOW DEVICES THAT PICK UP THE PHONE
AND JUST SIT THERE...  THIS MEANS THAT YOUR DEVICE GETS NO CARRIER, THUS
YOU THINK THERE ISN'T A COMPUTER ON THE OTHER END.  THE ONLY WAY AROUND IT
IS TO DETECT WHEN IT WAS PICKED UP.  IF IT PICKES UP AFTER THE SAME NUMBER
RING, THEN YOU KNOW IT IS A HACKER- DEFEATER.  THESE DEVICES TAKE A MULTI-
DIGIT CODE TO LET YOU INTO THE SYSTEM.SOME ARE, IN FACT, QUITE SOPHISTICATED
TO THE POINT WHERE IT WILL ALSO LIMIT THE USER NAME'S DOWN, SO ONLY ONE NAME OR SET OF NAMES CAN BE VALID LOGINS AFTER THEY INPUT THE CODE...
OTHER DEVICES INPUT A NUMBER CODE, AND THEN THEY DIAL BACK A PRE-PROGRAMMED NUMBER FOR THAT CODE.  THESE SYSTEMS
ARE BEST TO LEAVE ALONE, BECAUSE THEY KNOW SOMEONE IS PLAYING WITH THEIR
PHONE.  YOU MAY THINK "BUT I'LL JUST REPROGRAM THE DIAL-BACK."  THINK
AGAIN, HOW STUPID THAT IS...  THEN THEY HAVE YOUR NUMBER, OR A TEST LOOP
IF YOU WERE JUST A LITTLE SMARTERIF IT'S YOUR NUMBER, THEY HAVE YOUR
BALLS (IF MALE...), IF ITS A LOOP, THEN YOU ARE SCREWED AGAIN, SINCE THOSE
LOOPS ARE _MONITORED_.AS FOR MULTIPLEXERS...  WHAT A PLEXER
IS SUPPOSED TO DO IS THIS:  THE SYSTEM CAN ACCEPT MULTIPLE USERS.  WE HAVE
TO TIME SHARE, SO WE'LL LET THE FRONT- END PROCESSOR DO IT...  WELL, THIS IS
WHAT A MULTIPLEXER DOES.  USUALLY THEY WILL ASK FOR SOMETHING LIKE "ENTER
CLASS" OR "LINE:".  USUALLY IT IS PROGRAMMED FOR A DOUBLE DIGIT NUMBER,
OR A FOUR TO FIVE LETTER WORD.  THERE ARE USUALLY A FEW SETS OF NUMBERS IT
ACCEPTS, BUT THOSE NUMBERS ALSO SET YOUR 300/1200 BAUD DATA TYPE.  THESE
MULTIPLEXERS ARE INCONVENIENT AT BEST, SO NOT TO WORRY.
A LITTLE ABOUT THE HISTORY OF HACKING: HACKING, BY OUR DEFINITION, MEANS A
GREAT KNOWLEDGE OF SOME SPECIAL AREA. DOCTORS AND LAWYERS ARE HACKERS OF A SORT, BY THIS DEFINITION.  BUT MOST OFTEN, IT IS BEING USED IN THE COMPUTER CONTEXT, AND THUS WE HAVE A DEFINITION
OF "ANYONE WHO HAS A GREAT AMOUNT OFCOMPUTER OR TELECOMMUNICATIONS
KNOWLEDGE."  YOU ARE NOT A HACKER BECAUSE YOU HAVE A LIST OF CODES...
HACKING, BY OUR DEFINITION, HAS THEN BEEN AROUND ONLY ABOUT 15 YEARS.  IT
STARTED, WHERE ELSE BUT, MIT AND COLLEGES WHERE THEY HAD COMPUTER
SCIENCE OR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTS.  HACKERS HAVE CREATED
SOME OF THE BEST COMPUTER LANGUAGES, THE MOST AWESOME OPERATING SYSTEMS, AND EVEN GONE ON TO MAKE MILLIONS.  HACKING
USED TO HAVE A GOOD NAME, WHEN WE COULD HONESTLY SAY "WE KNOW WHAT WE ARE DOING".  NOW IT MEANS (IN THE PUBLIC EYE):  THE 414'S, RON AUSTIN, THE NASA
HACKERS, THE ARPANET HACKERS...  ALL  THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN CAUGHT, HAVE
DONE DAMAGE, AND ARE NOW GOING TO HAVE TO FACE FINES AND SENTANCES.
THUS WE COME PAST THE MORALISTIC CRAP, AND TO OUR PURPOSE:  EDUCATE THE HACKER COMMUNITY, RETURN TO THE DAYS WHEN PEOPLE ACTUALLY KNEW SOMETHING... _______________________________________

Hacking Guide




_______________________________________
WELCOME TO THE BASICS OF HACKING II:
VAX'S AND UNIX.  IN THIS ARTICLE, WE
DISCUSS THE UNIX SYSTEM THAT RUNS ON
THE VARIOUS VAX SYSTEMS.  IF YOU ARE
ON ANOTHER UNIX-TYPE SYSTEM, SOME
COMMANDS MAY DIFFER, BUT SINCE IT IS
LICENCED TO BELL, THEY CAN'T MAKE MANY
CHANGES.
_______________________________________
HACKING ONTO A UNIX SYSTEM IS VERY
DIFFICULT, AND IN THIS CASE, WE ADVISE
HAVING AN INSIDE SOURCE, IF POSSIBLE.
THE REASON IT IS DIFFICULT TO HACK A
VAX IS THIS:  MANY VAX, AFTER YOU GET
A CARRIER FROM THEM, RESPOND=>
LOGIN:
THEY GIVE YOU NO CHANCE TO SEE WHAT THE
LOGIN NAME FORMAT IS.  MOST COMMONLY
USED ARE SINGLE WORDS, UNDER 8 DIGITS,
USUALLY THE PERSON'S NAME.  THERE IS
A WAY AROUND THIS:  MOST VAX HAVE AN
ACCT. CALLED 'SUGGEST' FOR PEOPLE TO
USE TO MAKE A SUGGESTION TO THE SYSTEM
ROOT TERMINAL.  THIS IS USUALLY WATCHED
BY THE SYSTEM OPERATOR, BUT AT LATE
HE IS PROBABLY AT HOME SLEEPING OR
SCREWING SOMEONE'S BRAINS OUT.  SO WE
CAN WRITE A PROGRAM TO SEND AT THE
VAX THIS TYPE OF A MESSAGE:
A SCREEN FREEZE (CNTRL-S), SCREEN
CLEAR (SYSTEM DEPENDANT), ABOUT 255
GARBAGE CHARACTERS, AND THEN A COMMAND
TO CREATE A LOGIN ACCT., AFTER WHICH
YOU CLEAR THE SCREEN AGAIN, THEN UN-
FREEZE THE TERMINAL.  WHAT THIS DOES:
WHEN THE TERMINAL IS FROZEN, IT KEEPS
A BUFFER OF WHAT IS SENT.  WELL, THE
BUFFER IS ABOUT 127 CHARACTERS LONG.
SO YOU OVERFLOW IT WITH TRASH, AND THEN
YOU SEND A COMMAND LINE TO CREATE AN
ACCT. (SYSTEM DEPENDANT).  AFTER THIS
YOU CLEAR THE BUFFER AND SCREEN AGAIN,
THEN UNFREEZE THE TERMINAL.  THIS IS
A BAD WAY TO DO IT, AND IT IS MUCH
NICER IF YOU JUST SEND A COMMAND TO
THE TERMINAL TO SHUT THE SYSTEM DOWN,
OR WHATEVER YOU ARE AFTER...
THERE IS ALWAYS, *ALWAYS* AN ACCT.
CALLED ROOT, THE MOST POWERFUL ACCT.
TO BE ON, SINCE IT HAS ALL OF THE
SYSTEM FILES ON IT.  IF YOU HACK YOUR
WAY ONTO THIS ONE, THEN EVERYTHING IS
EASY FROM HERE ON...
ON THE UNIX SYSTEM, THE ABORT KEY IS
THE CNTRL-D KEY.  WATCH HOW MANY TIMES
YOU HIT THIS, SINCE IT IS ALSO A WAY TO
LOG OFF THE SYSTEM!
A LITTLE ABOUT UNIX ARCHITECHTURE:
THE ROOT DIRECTORY, CALLED ROOT, IS
WHERE THE SYSTEM RESIDES.  AFTER THIS
COME A FEW 'SUB' ROOT DIRECTORIES,
USUALLY TO GROUP THINGS (STATS HERE,
PRIV STUFF HERE, THE USER LOG HERE...).
UNDER THIS COMES THE SUPERUSER (THE
OPERATOR OF THE SYSTEM), AND THEN
FINALLY THE NORMAL USERS.  IN THE UNIX
'SHELL' EVERYTHING IS TREATED THE SAME.
BY THIS WE MEAN:  YOU CAN ACCESS A
PROGRAM THE SAME WAY YOU ACCESS A USER
DIRECTORY, AND SO ON.  THE WAY THE UNIX
SYSTEM WAS WRITTEN, EVERYTHING, USERS
INCLUDED, ARE JUST PROGRAMS BELONGING
TO THE ROOT DIRECTORY.  THOSE OF YOU
WHO HACKED ONTO THE ROOT, SMILE, SINCE
YOU CAN SCREW EVERYTHING...
THE MAIN LEVEL (EXEC LEVEL) PROMPT ON
THE UNIX SYSTEM IS THE $, AND IF YOU
ARE ON THE ROOT, YOU HAVE A # (SUPER-
USER PROMPT).
OK, A FEW BASICS FOR THE SYSTEM...
TO SEE WHERE YOU ARE, AND WHAT PATHS
ARE ACTIVE IN REGUARDS TO YOUR USER
ACCOUNT, THEN TYPE => PWD
THIS SHOWS YOUR ACCT. SEPERATED BY
A SLASH WITH ANOTHER PATHNAME (ACCT.),
POSSIBLY MANY TIMES.
TO CONNECT THROUGH TO ANOTHER PATH,
OR MANY PATHS, YOU WOULD TYPE:
YOU=> PATH1/PATH2/PATH3
AND THEN YOU ARE CONNECTED ALL THE
WAY FROM PATH1 TO PATH3.  YOU CAN
RUN THE PROGRAMS ON ALL THE PATHS
YOU ARE CONNECTED TO.  IF IT DOES
NOT ALLOW YOU TO CONNECT TO A PATH,
THEN YOU HAVE INSUFFICIENT PRIVS, OR
THE PATH IS CLOSED AND ARCHIVED ONTO
TAPE.  YOU CAN RUN PROGRAMS THIS WAY
ALSO:
YOU=> PATH1/PATH2/PATH3/PROGRAM-NAME
UNIX TREATS EVERYTHING AS A PROGRAM,
AND THUS THERE A FEW COMMANDS TO
LEARN...
TO SEE WHAT YOU HAVE ACCESS TO IN THE
END PATH, TYPE=>  LS
FOR LIST.  THIS SHOW THE PROGRAMS
YOU CAN RUN.  YOU CAN CONNECT TO
THE ROOT DIRECTORY AND RUN IT'S
PROGRAMS WITH=>
/ROOT
BY THE WAY, MOST UNIX SYSTEMS HAVE
THEIR LOG FILE ON THE ROOT, SO YOU
CAN SET UP A WATCH ON THE FILE, WAITING
FOR PEOPLE TO LOG IN AND SNATCH THEIR
PASSWORD AS IT PASSES THRU THE FILE.
TO CONNECT TO A DIRECTORY, USE THE
COMMAND:  => CD PATHNAME
THIS ALLOWS YOU TO DO WHAT YOU WANT
WITH THAT DIRECTORY.  YOU MAY BE ASKED
FOR A PASSWORD, BUT THIS IS A GOOD
WAY OF FINDING OTHER USER NAMES TO
HACK ONTO.
THE WILDCARD CHARACTER IN UNIX, IF
YOU WANT TO SEARCH DOWN A PATH FOR
A GAME OR SUCH, IS THE *.
=> LS /*
SHOULD SHOW YOU WHAT YOU CAN ACCESS.
THE FILE TYPES ARE THE SAME AS THEY
ARE ON A DEC, SO REFER TO THAT SECTION
WHEN EXAMINING FILE.  TO SEE WHAT IS
IN A FILE, USE THE => PR FILENAME
COMMAND, FOR PRINT FILE.
WE ADVISE PLAYING WITH PATHNAMES TO
GET THE HANG OF THE CONCEPT.  THERE
IS ON-LINE HELP AVAILABLE ON MOST
SYSTEMS WITH A 'HELP' OR A '?'.
WE ADVISE YOU LOOK THRU THE HELP
FILES AND PAY ATTENTION TO ANYTHING
THEY GIVE YOU ON PATHNAMES, OR THE
COMMANDS FOR THE SYSTEM.
YOU CAN, AS A USER, CREATE OR DESTROY
DIRECTORIES ON THE TREE BENEATH YOU.
THIS MEANS THAT ROOT CAN KILL EVERY-
THING BUT ROOT, AND YOU CAN KILL ANY
THAT ARE BELOW YOU.  THESE ARE THE
=> MKDIR PATHNAME
=> RMDIR PATHNAME
COMMANDS.
ONCE AGAIN, YOU ARE NOT ALONE ON THE
SYSTEM...  TYPE=>  WHO
TO SEE WHAT OTHER USERS ARE LOGGED IN
TO THE SYSTEM AT THE TIME.  IF YOU
WANT TO TALK TO THEM=>  WRITE USERNAME
WILL ALLOW YOU TO CHAT AT THE SAME
TIME, WITHOUT HAVING TO WORRY ABOUT THE
PARSER.  TO SEND MAIL TO A USER, SAY
=> MAIL
AND ENTER THE MAIL SUB-SYSTEM.
TO SEND A MESSAGE TO ALL THE USERS
ON THE SYSTEM, SAY => WALL
WHICH STANDS FOR 'WRITE ALL'
BY THE WAY, ON A FEW SYSTEMS, ALL YOU
HAVE TO DO IS HIT THE <RETURN> KEY
TO END THE MESSAGE, BUT ON OTHERS YOU
MUST HIT THE CNTRL-D KEY.
TO SEND A SINGLE MESSAGE TO A USER,
SAY => WRITE USERNAME
THIS IS VERY HANDY AGAIN!  IF YOU SEND
THE SEQUENCE OF CHARACTERS DISCUSSED
AT THE VERY BEGINNING OF THIS ARTICLE,
YOU CAN HAVE THE SUPER-USER TERMINAL DO
TRICKS FOR YOU AGAIN.
PRIVS:
IF YOU WANT SUPER-USER PRIVS, YOU CAN
EITHER LOG IN AS ROOT, OR EDIT YOUR
ACCT. SO IT CAN SAY => SU
THIS NOW GIVES YOU THE # PROMPT, AND
ALLOWS YOU TO COMPLETELY BY-PASS THE
PROTECTION.  THE WONDERFUL SECURITY
CONSCIOUS DEVELOPERS AT BELL MADE IT
VERY DIFFICULT TO DO MUCH WITHOUT
PRIVS, BUT ONCE YOU HAVE THEM, THERE
IS ABSOLUTELY NOTHING STOPPING YOU
FROM DOING ANYTHING YOU WANT TO.
TO BRING DOWN A UNIX SYSTEM:
=> CHDIR /BIN
=> RM *
THIS WIPES OUT THE PATHNAME BIN, WHERE
ALL THE SYSTEM MAINTENANCE FILES ARE.
OR TRY:
=> R -R
THIS RECURSIVELY REMOVES EVERYTHING
FROM THE SYSTEM EXCEPT THE REMOVE
COMMAND ITSELF.
OR TRY:
=> KILL -1,1
=> SYNC

Hybrid 
THIS WIPES OUT THE SYSTEM DEVICES FROM
OPERATION.
WHEN YOU ARE FINALLY SICK AND TIRED
FROM HACKING ON THE VAX SYSTEMS, JUST
HIT YOUR CNTRL-D AND REPEAT KEY, AND
YOU WILL EVENTUALLY BE LOGGED OUT.
_______________________________________
THE REASON THIS FILE SEEMS TO BE VERY
SKETCHY IS THE FACT THAT BELL HAS 7
LICENCED VERSIONS OF UNIX OUT IN THE
PUBLIC DOMAIN, AND THESE COMMANDS ARE
THOSE COMMON TO ALL OF THEM.  WE
RECOMMEND YOU HACK ONTO THE ROOT OR
BIN DIRECTORY, SINCE THEY HAVE THE
HIGHEST LEVELS OF PRIVS, AND THERE
IS REALLY NOT MUCH YOU CAN DO (EXCEPT
DEVELOPE SOFTWARE) WITHOUT THEM.


   Welcome to Basics of Hacking I: DEC's In this article you will learn how
to log in to DEC's, logging out, and all the fun stuff to do in-between.
All of this information is based on a standard DEC system.  Since there
are DEC systems 10 and 20, and we favor, the DEC 20, there will be more
info on them in this article.  It is also the more common of the two,
and is used by much more interesting people (if you know what we mean...)
Ok, the first thing you want to do when you are receiving carrier from
a DEC system is to find out the format of login names.  You can do this
by looking at who is on the system.

DEC=> @   (the 'exec' level prompt)
YOU=> SY

SY is short for SY(STAT) and shows you the system status.  You should see
|he format of login names... A SYSTAT usually comes up in this form:

Job  Line  Program  User

Job:     The JOB number (Not important unless you want to log them off later)
Line:    What line they are on (used to talk to them...)
         These are both two or three digit numbers.
Program: What program are they running under?  If it says 'EXEC' they aren't
         doing anything at all...
User:    ahhhAHHHH!  This is the user name they are logged in under...

Copy the format, and hack yourself out a working code...
Login format is as such:

DEC=> @
YOU=> login username password

Username is the username in the format you saw above in the SYSTAT.  After you
hit the space after your username, it will stop echoing characters back to
your screen.  This is the password you are typing in...  Remember, people
usually use their name, their dog's name, the name of a favorite character
in a book, or something like this.  A few clever people have it set to a key
cluster (qwerty or asdfg).  PW's can be from 1 to 8 characters long, anything
after that is ignored.
   It would be nice to have a little help, wouldn't it?  Just type a ?
or the word HELP, and it will give you a whole list of topics...
Some handy characters for you to know would be the control keys, wouldn't it?
Backspace on a DEC 20 is rub which is 255 on your ASCII chart.  On the DEC 10
it is Ctrl-H.  To abort a long listing or a program, Ctrl-C works fine.  Use
Ctrl-O to stop long output to the terminal.  This is handy when playing
a game, but you don't want to Ctrl-C out.  Ctrl-T for the time.  Ctrl-U
will kill the whole line you are typing at the moment.  You may accidently
run a program where the only way out is a Ctrl-X, so keep that in reserve.
Ctrl-S to stop listing, Ctrl-Q to continue on both systems.  Is your
terminal having trouble??  Like, it pauses for no reason, or it doesn't
backspace right?  This is because both systems support many terminals,
and you haven't told it what yours is yet...  You are using a VT05 (Isn't
that funny?  I thought i had an apple) so you need to tell it you are one.

DEC=> @
YOU=> information terminal
      or...
YOU=> info ter

This shows you what your terminal is set up as...

DEC=>  all sorts of shit, then the @
YOU=>  set ter vt05

This sets your terminal type to VT05. Now let's see what is in the account
(here after abbreviated acct.) that you have hacked onto...

SAY => DIR

short for directory, it shows you what the user of the code has save to the
disk.  There should be a format like this:  xxxxx.ooo      xxxxx is the file
name, from 1 to 20 characters long.  ooo is the file type, one of:
exe, txt, dat, bas, cmd   and a few others that are system dependant.
Exe is a compiled program that can be run (just by typing its name at the @).
Txt is a text file, which you can see by typing=> type xxxxx.txt
Do not try to=> type xxxxx.exe This is very bad for your terminal and
will tell you absolutly nothing. Dat is data they have saved.
Bas is a basic program, you can have it typed out for you.
Cmd is a command type file, a little too complicated to go into here.

TRY => take xxxxx.cmd

By the way, there are other usersout there who may have files you can
use (Gee, why else am i here?).

TYPE => DIR <*.*>   (DEC 20)
     => DIR [*,*]   (DEC 10)
* is a wildcard, and will allow you

to access the files on other accounts if the user has it set for public
access.  If it isn't set for public access, then you won't see it.
to run that program:

DEC=> @
YOU=> username program-name

Username is the directory you saw the file listed under, and file name was
what else but the file name?

**  YOU ARE NOT ALONE  **
Remember, you said (at the very start) SY  short for SYSTAT, and how we said
this showed the other users on the system?  Well, you can talk to them,
or at least send a message to anyone you see listed in a SYSTAT.  You can
do this by:

DEC=> the user list (from your systat)
YOU=> talk username     (DEC 20)
      send username     (DEC 10)

Talk allows you and them immediate conferencing.









Description: Hackign Data General (Knights of Shadow IV)
  File Date: 6-21-87
  File Time: 6:36 am


***************************************


   Welcome to the basics of hacking III: Data General computers.
Data General is favored by large corporations who need to have a lot of
data on-line.  The Data General AOS, which stands for Advance on of
bastardized UNIX. All the commands which were in the UNIX article, will
work on a Data General.  Once again, we have the problem of not knowing
the format for the login name on the Data General you want to hack.  As
seems to be standard, try names from one to 8 digits long.  Data General
designed the computer to be for businessmen, and is thus very simplistic,
and basically fool proof (but not damn fool proof).  It follows the same
login format as the unix system:

DG=> login:
DG=> password:
YOU=> password

Passwords can be a maximum of 8 characters, and they are almost always
set to a default of 'AOS' or 'DG'. (any you know about businessmen...)

   A word about control characters:
Ctrl-O stops massive print-outs to the screen, but leaves you in whatever
mode you were.  (A technical word on what this actually does:  It tells the
CPU to ignore the terminal, and prints everything out to the CPU!  This is
about 19200 baud, and so it seems like it just cancels.)  Ctrl-U kills the
line you are typing at the time.  Now for the weird one:  Ctrl-C tells the
CPU to stop, and wait for another ctrl character.  To stop a program,
you actually need to type Ctrl-C and then a Ctrl-B.

   Once you get on, type 'HELP'.  Many DG (Data General) computers are sold
in a package deal, which also gets the company free customizing.  So you never
know what commands there might be.  So we will follow what is known as the
'ECLIPSE STANDARD', or''ctory like. To find out the files on the directory
you are using, type

=> DIR

To run a program, just like on a DEC, just type its name.  Other than this,
and running other people's programs, there really isn't a standard...

***  HARK, yon other system users  ***

To see who is on, type => WHO remember?).  This shows the other users,
what they are doing, and what paths they are connected across.  This
is handy, so try a few of those paths yourself.  To send a message, say

=> send username

This is a one time message, just like send on the DEC 10.  From here on, try
commands from the other previous files and from the 'HELP' listing.

superuser:
If you can get privs, just say:

=> superuser on

and you turn those privs on!
By the way, you remember that computers keep a log of what people do?  type:

=> syslog /stop

and it no longer records anything you do on the system, or any of the other
users.  It screams to high heaven that it was you who turned it off, but it
keeps no track of any accounts created or whatever else you may do.  You can

say=>  syslog /start

to turn it back on (now why would you want to do something like that?????)
To exit from the system, type=> BYE and the system will hang up on you.

   Most of the systems around, including DECs, VAX's, and DG's, have games.
These are usually located in a path or directory of the name  games or <games>
or games:  Try looking in them, and you might find adventure, zork, wumpus
(with bent arrows in hand) or a multitude of others. There may also be
games called 'CB' or 'FORUM'. These are a sort of computer conference call.
Use them on weekends, and you can meet all sorts of interesting people.

   If you would like to see more articles on hacking (this time far more than
just the basics), or maybe articles on networks and such, then leave us mail
if we are on the system, or have the sysop search us down.  We call a lot
of places, and you may just find us.

Tuesday

Secure Computer: Speed Up Your Network and Internet Access

Secure Computer: Speed Up Your Network and Internet Access

Secure Computer: Types of Passwords

Secure Computer: HOLES

Secure Computer: HOLES

Secure Computer: Computer File Extensions

Computer File Extensions

Computer File Extensions

This chart is a list of the most commonly found Computer File Extensions , what type of file they are and what program if any they are associated with.

.$$$ Temporary file
.$$A OS/2 program file
.$$F OS/2 database file
.$$S OS/2 spreadsheet file
.$D$ OS/2 planner file
.$DB DBASE IV temporary file
.$ED Microsoft C temporary editor file.
.$VM Microsoft Windows temporary file for virtual managers.
._DD Norton disk doctor recovery file.
._DM Nuts n Bolts disk minder recovery file.
.--- File used to backup sys, ini, dat, and other important files from Windows 3.1 and above.
.075 Ventura Publisher 75x75 dpi screen characters
.085 Ventura Publisher 85x85 dpi screen characters
.091 Ventura Publisher 91x91 dpi screen characters
.096 Ventura Publisher 96x96 dpi screen characters
.0B Pagemaker printer font LineDraw enhanced characters.
.1ST File used by some software manufacturers to represent a file that should be read first before starting the program.
.2GR File used in Windows 3.x to display the graphics on older 286 and 386 computers.
.386 Virtual machine support files for the 386 enhanced mode.
.3GR File used in Windows 3.x to display the graphics on later 386, 486 and Pentium computers.
.4SW 4DOS Swap file
A
A ADA program file or UNIX library
.A3W MacroMedia Authorware 3.5 file
.ABK Autobackup file used with Corel Draw 6 and above.
.ABR Brush file for Adobe Photoshop

.ACT Adobe Photoshop Color table file.

.AD After Dark file.
.ADF Adapter description files.
.ADM After Dark screen saver module.
.ADR After Dark randomizer
.AI Adobe Illustrator file.
.AIF Auto Interchange File Format (AIFF) Audio file.
.ANI Windows 95 / Windows 98 / Windows NT animated mouse cursor file.

.ANS ANSI text file.
.ARJ Compressed file can be used with Winzip / Pkzip.

.ASC ASCII Text file
.ASF Sort for Advanced Streaming Format, file developed by Microsoft. The .ASF file is generally a movie player and can be open with software such as Windows Media Player.
.ASP Microsoft FrontPage Active Server Pages. To open these files use your internet browser.
.AVI Windows Movie file.
B
.BAK Backup file used for important windows files usually used with the System.ini and the Win.ini.
.BAS QBasic program and or Visual Basic Module.
.BAT Batch file that can perform tasks for you in dos, like a macro.

.BFC Microsoft Windows 95 / Windows 98 Briefcase file.

.BG Backgammon game file.
.BIN Translation tables for code pages other than the standard 437.
.BK2 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK3 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK4 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK5 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK6 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK7 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK8 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK9 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BMP Graphical Bit Mapped File used in Windows Paintbrush.

.BNK Sim City Backup
.BPS Microsoft Works Word Processor File.
.BPT Corel Draw Bitmap master file
.BV1 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV2 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV3 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV4 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV5 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV6 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV7 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV8 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV9 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BWP BatteryWatch pro file.
C
.C C file used with the C programming language.
.CAB Cabinet file used in Windows 95 and Windows 98 that contains all the windows files and drivers. Information about how to extract a .CAB file can be found on document CH000363.
.CAL Windows Calendar, Supercalculator4 file or Supercal spreadsheet.
.CBL COBOL Program File
.CBT Computer Based Training files.
.CDA CD Audio Player Track.
.CDR Corel Draw Vector file.

.CFB Comptons Multimedia file
.CFG Configuration file
.CFL Corel flowchart file

.CFM Corel FontMaster file / Cold Fusion Template file / Visual dBASE windows customer form
.CHK Scandisk file which is used to back up information that scandisk has found to be bad, found in C root. Because the information within these files are corrupted or reported as bad by Scandisk it is perfectly fine to delete these files, providing you are currently not missing any information. Additional information about scandisk can be found on our scandisk page.

.CL Generic LISP source code.
.CL3 Easy CD Creator layout file.
.CL4 Easy CD Creator layout file.
.CLA Java Class file.
.CLG Disk catalog database
.CLK Corel R.A.V.E. animation file.

.CLL Crick software clicker file
.CLO Cloe image
.CLP Windows Clipboard / Quattro Pro clip art / Clipper 5 compiler script
.CLR WinEdit Colorization word list / 1st reader binary color screen image / PhotStyler color definition
.CLS Visual Basic Class module / C++ Class definition
.CMD Windows Script File also OS/2 command file.
.CMV Corel Movie file.

.CNT Help file (.hlp) Contents (and other file contents)
.CPL Windows 95 / Windows 98 / Windows NT control panel icons.

.CNE Configuration file that builds .COM files.
.CNF Configuration file.
.COB COBOL source code file.
.COD FORTRAN Compiler program code
.COM File that can be executed.
.CPE Fax cover page file
.CPI Code Page Information or Microsoft Windows applet control panel file
.CPP C++ source code file.
.CRD Windows Card file.
.CSV Comma-Separated Variable file. Used primary with databases and spreadsheets / Image file used with CopuShow

.CUR Windows Mouse Cursor.
.CVS Canvas drawing file
.CXX C++ program file or Zortech C++ file
D
.DAT Data file, generally associated or extra data for a program to use.
.DB Paradox database file / Progress database file
.DB2 dBase II file
.DBC Microsoft Visiual Foxpro database container

.DBF dBase II,III,III+,IV / LotusWorks database.
.DBK dBase databse backup / Orcad schematic capture backup file
.DBM Cold Fusion template
.DBO dBase IV compiled program file
.DBQ Paradox memo
.DBT dBase database text file
.DBV Flexfile memo field file
.DBW DataBoss database file
.DBX Database file / DataBeam Image / MS Visual Foxpro Table
.DEV Device Driver
.DIF Document Interchange Format; VisiCalc
.DLL Dynamic Link Library; Allow executable code modules to be loaded on demand, linked at run time, and unloaded when not needed. Windows uses these files to support foreign languages and international/nonstandard keyboards.
.DMO Demo file
.DMP Dump file
.DMD Visual dBASE data module
.DMF Delusion/XTracker Digital Music File
.DMO Demo file
.DMP Dump file
.DMS Compressed archive file
.DOC Microsoft Word Windows/DOS / LotusWorks word processor Windows/DOS /PF S:First Choice Windows/DOS DOT MS Word Windows/DOS.
.DOS Text file and DOS Specification Info
.DOT Microsoft Word Template (Macro).

.DRV Device driver files that attach the hardware to Windows. The different drivers are system, keyboard, pointing devices, sound, printer/ plotter, network, communications adapter.
.DRW Micrografx draw/graph files.
.DT_ Macintosh Data File Fork
.DTA Data file
.DTD SGML Document definition file
.DTF Q&A database
.DTM DigiRekker module
.DTP SecurDesk! Desktop / Timeworks Publisher Text Document / Pressworks Template file
.DUN Dialup Networking exported file.
.DX Document Imaging file / Digital data exchange file

.DXB Drawing interchange binary file
.DXF Autocad drawing interchange format file
.DXN Fujitsu dexNet fax document
.DXR Macromedia director projected movie file
.DYN Lotus 1-2-3 file
.DWG AutoCad Drawing Database
E
.EEB Button bar for Equation Editor in Word Perfect for Windows
.EFT CHIWRITER high resolution screen characters
.EGA EGA screen characters for Ventura Publisher
.ELG Event List text file used with Prosa
.EMS Enhanced Menu System configuration file for PC Tools
.EMU IRMA Workstation for Windows emulation
.ENC ADW Knowledge Ware Encyclopedia
.END Corel Draw Arrow Definition file
.ENG Sprint dictionary file engine
.ENV Word Perfect for Windows environment file.
.EPG Exported PaGe file used with DynaVox
.EPS Encapsulated Postscript, with embedded TIFF preview images.
.EQN Word Perfect for Windows Equation file
.ERD Entity Relation Diagram graphic file
.ERM Entity Relation Diagram model file
.ERR Error log file
.ESH Extended Shell Batch file
.EVT Event file scheduler file for PC Tools
.EX3 Device driver for Harvard graphics 3.0
.EXC QEMM exclude file from optimization file or Rexx program file
.EXE Executable file.
.EXT Extension file for Norton Commander
F
.FDF Adobe Acrobat Forms Document.
.FF AGFA CompuGraphics outline font description.
.FFA Microsoft Fast Find file.

.FFF GUS PnP bank / defFax fax document
.FFL Microsoft Fast Find file / PrintMaster Gold form file

.FFO Microsoft Fast Find file

.FFT DCA/FFT final form text
.FFX Microsoft Fast Find file

.FON Font files to support display and output devices.
.FR3 dBase IV renamed dBase III+ form
.FRF FontMonger Font
.FRG dBase IV uncompiled report
.FRK Compressed zip file used with Apple Macinotsh computers.
Most Relaxing New Age Music in the UniverseFrom a to BWWE The Music - A New Day, Volume 10 (Amazon.com Exclusive)This Is Country Music
.FRM Form file used with various programs / Microsoft Visual Basic Form / FrameMaker document / FrameBuilder file / Oracle executable form / Word Perfect Merge form / DataCAD symbol report file
.FRO dBase IV compiled report / FormFlow file
.FRP PerForm Pro Plus Form
.FRS WordPerfect graphics driver
.FRT FoxPro report file
.FRX Microsoft Visual basic binary form file / FoxPro report file

.FRZ FormFlow file
G
.GIF CompuServe Graphics Interchange Format.
.GR2 286 grabbers that specify which font to use with DOS and Windows.
.GR3 386 grabbers that specify which font to use with DOS and Windows.

.GRA Microsoft Flight simulator graphics file

.GRB Microsoft MS-DOS shell monitor

.GRF Micrografx draw/graph files.
.GRP Microsoft Program Group.

.GZ Compressed Archive file for GZip
H
.HBK Mathcad handbook file
.HDL Procomm Plus alternate download file listing
.HDR Procomm Plus message header
.HDX Help index
.HEX Hex dump
.HFI GEM HP font info
.HGL HP graphics language graphic
.HH C++ Header
.HHH Precompiled Header for Power C
.HHP Help data for Procomm Plus
.HLP Files that contain the Help feature used in windows, cannot be read from DOS.

.HQX Apple Macintosh Binhex text conversion file.

.HSQ Data files associated with the Qaz Trojan.
.HSS Photoshop Hue/Saturation information.
.HST History file / Procomm Plus History File / Host file.
.HTA Hypertext Application (run applications from HTML document).

.HTM Web page files containing HTML or other information found on the Internet.

I

.ICA Citrix file / IOCA graphics file
.ICB Targa Bitmap
.ICC Kodak printer image
.ICE Archive file
.ICL Icon library file
.ICM Image Color Matching profile file
.ICN Microsoft Windows Icon Manager.

.ICO Microsoft Windows Icondraw / Icon.

.ID Disk identification file.
.IDB Microsoft developer intermediate file, used with Microsoft Visual Studio

.IDD MIDI instruments definition
.IDE Integrated Development Environment configuration file
.IDF MIDI instruments drivers file
.IDQ Internet data query file
.IDX Index file
.IFF IFF/LBM (Amiga) used by Computer Eyes frame grabber.
.IMG GEM/IMG (Digital Research) or Ventura Publisher bitmap graphic
.INF Information file that contains customization options.
.INI Files that initialize Windows and Windows apps.
.IPF Installer Script File / OS/2 online documentation for Microsoft source files.
.ISO Compressed file used for an exact duplicate of a CD. .ISO files can be extracted or opened such programs as Win Image that can be found on our shareware download section.

.IWA IBM Writing Assistant Text file.
J
.JAS Graphic
.JPG Graphic commonly used on the Internet and capable of being opened by most modern image editors.
.JS JavaScript file.
.JSB Henter-Joyce Jaws script binary file
.JSD eFAX jet suite document
.JSE JScript encoded script file
.JSH Henter-Joyce Jaws script header file
.JSL PaintShop pro file
.JSM Henter-Joyce Jaws script message file
.JSP Java server page
.JSS Henter-Joyce Jaws script source file
.JT JT fax file
.JTF JPEG tagged Interchange format file
.JTK Sun Java toolkit file
.JTP JetForm file
.JW Justwrite text file
.JWL Justwrite text file library
.JZZ Jazz spreadsheet
K
.KAR Karaoke File used with some audio players.
L
.LGC Program Use Log File (for Windows Program Use Optimization).
.LGO Contains the code for displaying the screen logo.
.LOG Contains the process of certain steps, such as when running scandisk it will usually keep a scandisk.log of what occurred.
.LNK HTML link file used with Microsoft Internet Explorer.

.LWP Lotus Wordpro 96/97 file.
M
.MAC Macintosh macpaint files.
.MBX Microsoft Outlook Express mailbox file.

.MD Compressed Archive file
.MDA Microsoft Access Add-in / Microsoft Access 2 Workgroup.
.MDB Microsoft Access Database / Microsoft Access Application.
.MDE Microsoft Access Database File
.MDF Menu definition file
.MDL Digitrakker Music Module / Rational Rose / Quake model file

.MDM Telix Modem Definition
.MDN Microsoft Access Blank Database Template
.MDP Microsoft Developer Studio Project
.MDT Microsoft Access Add-in Data
.MDW Microsoft Access Workgroup Information
.MDX dBase IV Multiple Index
.MDZ Microsoft Access Wizard Template
.MEB WordPerfect Macro Editor bottom overflow file
.MED WordPerfect Macro Editor delete save / OctaMed tracker module
.MEM WordPerfect Macro Editor macro / Memory File of variables
.MID Midi orchestra files that are used to play with midi sounds built within the sound card.

.MIX Power C object file / Multiplayer Picture file (Microsoft Photodraw 2000 & Microsoft Picture It!) / Command & Conquer Movie/Sound file

.MOD Winoldap files that support (with grabbers) data exchange between DOS apps and Windows apps.
.MOV File used with Quick Time to display a move.

.MP1 MPEG audio stream, layer I
.MP2 MPEG audio stream, layer II
.MP3 MPEG audio stream, layer III; High compressed audio files generally used to record audio tracks and store them in a decent sized file available for playback. See our MP3 page for additional information.

.MPG MPEG movie file.
.MSN Microsoft Network document / Decent mission file

.MTF Windows metafile.
.MTH Derive Math file
.MTM Sound file / MultiTracker music module
.MTV Picture file
.MTW Minitab data file
.MU Quattro menu
.MUL Ultima Online game
.MUP Music publisher file
.MUS Audio file
.MVB Database file / Microsoft multimedia viewer file

.MVE Interplay video file

.MVF Movie stop frame file
.MWP Lotus Wordpro 97 smartmaster file
.MXD ArcInfo map file
.MXT Microsoft C Datafile

.MYD Make your point presentation file.
N
.N64 Nintendo 64 Emulator ROM image.

.NA2 Netscape Communicator address book.
.NAB Novell Groupwise address book

.NAP Napster Music security definition file.
.NDF NeoPlanet Browser file
.NDX Indexed file for most databases.
.NES Nintendo Entertainment system ROM image.

.NIL Norton guide online documentation
.NGF Enterasys Networks NetSight file.

.NHF Nero HFS-CD compilation or a general Nero file
.NIL Norton icon lybrary file.
.NLB Oracle 7 data file
.NLD ATI Radeon video driver file,

.NMI SwordSearcher file.
.NON LucasArts Star Wars - Tie fighter mouse options file.

.NOW Extension commonly used for readme text files.
.NRA Nero Audio CD file.
.NRB Nero CD-ROM boot file.
.NS2 Lotus Notes 2 database,
.NS5 Lotus Notes Domino file,
.NSO NetStudio easy web graphics file.
.NT Windows NT startup file.
.NUM File used with some Software Manufactures to store technical support numbers or other phone numbers, should be readable from DOS and or Windows.
O
.OCA Control Typelib Cache.
.OCX Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) control extension.
.OLB Object library
.OLD Used for backups of important files incase they are improperly updated or deleted.
.OLE Object Linking and Embedding object file
.OLI Olivetti text file
.ORI Original file.
P
.PAB Personal Address Book, file used with Microsoft Outlook.
Nike Men's NIKE T-LITE VIII LEATHER RUNNING SHOESNike The Overplay VNike 6.0 Mens Mavrk Low Black SneakerNike INITIATOR 394055-001 Silver/Red
.PB WinFax Pro phone book file
.PBD PowerBuilder dynamic library / Faxit phone book file
.PBF Turtle Beach Pinnacle bank file
.PBK Microsoft phonebook file

.PBL PowerBuilder library file
.PBM UNIX portable bitmap fuke
.PBR PowerBuilder resource
.PBI Profiler binary input file
.PBM PBM portable bit map graphic
.PBO Profiler binary output
.PBT Profiler binary table
.PCX Microsoft Paint & PC Paintbrush Windows/DOS.

.PDA Bitmap graphic file
.PDB TACT data file
.PDD Adobe PhotoDeluxe Image.

.PDF Adobe Acrobat Reader file which can only be read by Adobe Acrobat (to get file downloaded Adobe Acrobat from our Download Page.

.PDL Borland C++ project description language file.

.PDS Graphic file / Pldasm source code file.
.PDV Paintbrush printer driver.
.PDW Professional Draw document.
.PIC Picture / Viewer Frame Class.
.PIF Program Information File that configures a DOS app to run efficiently in windows.
.PJF Paintjet soft font file.
.PL Harvard palette file / PERL program file

.PL3 Harvard chart palette
.PLB Foxpro library / LogoShow Screensaver file
.PLC Lotus Add-in
.PLD PLD2 source file
.PLG REND386 / AVRIL file
.PLI Oracle 7 data description
.PLL Prelinked library
.PLM DisorderTracker2 module
.PLN WordPerfect spreadsheet file
.PLR Descent Pilot file

.PLS WinAmp MPEG playlist file / DisorderTracker 2 Sample file / Shoutcast file / MYOB data file
.PLT AutoCAD HPGL vector graphic plotter file / Gerber sign-making software file / Betley's CAD Microstation driver configuration for plotting
.PLY Autodesk polygon
.PP Compressed archive file.
.PP4 Picture Publisher.
.PP5 Picture Publisher.
.PPA Power Point Add-in.
.PPB WordPerfect Print preview button bar.
.PPD PostScript Printer description.
.PPF Turtle Beach Pinnacle program file.
.PPI Microsoft PowerPoint graphic file.

.PPL Harvard (now Serif) Polaroid Palette Plus ColorKey Driver.
.PPM PBM Portable Pixelmap Graphic.
.PPO Clipper Preprocessor Output.
.PPP Serif PagePlus Publication.
.PPS Microsoft PowerPoint Slideshow.

.PPT Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.

.PPX Serif PagePlus publication.
.PPZ Microsoft PowerPoint Packaged Presentation.

.PS2 File to support the Micro Channel Architecture in 386 Enhanced mode.
.PSD Adobe Photoshop image file.

.PST Post Office Box file used with Microsoft Outlook usually mailbox.pst unless named otherwise.
.PWA Password agent file.
.PWD Password file.
.PWF ProCite Workforms
.PWL Password file used in Windows 95 and Windows 98 is stored in the Windows directory.
.PWP Photoworks image file
.PWZ PowerPoint wizard
Q
.QIC Windows backup file
.QT Quick Time Movie File
.QXD Quark Express file
.QXL Quark Xpress element library
.QXT Quark Xpress template file
R
.RA Real Audio file.
.RAM Real Audio file.
.RAR Compressed file similar to .ZIP uses different compression program to extract. See our recommended download page for a program that can be used to extract .RAR files.
.RAS File extension used for raster graphic files.

.RD1 Descent registered level file

.RD3 Ray Dream designer graphics file / CorelDraw 3D file
.RD4 Ray Dream designer graphics file
.RD5 Ray Dream designer graphics file
.RDB TrueVector rules database
.RDF Resource description framework file / Chromeleon report definition
.RDL Descent registered level file / RadioDestiny radio stream

.RDX Reflex data file
.REC Sound file used with Windows Sound Recorder.

.RLE Microsoft Windows Run Length Encoded (Run Length Encoded (bitmap format) file that contains the actual screen logo).
.RMI Microsoft RMID sound file.
.RPB Automotive diagnostic file.
.RPD Rapidfile database
.RPM Red Hat Package Manager / RealMedia Player file.

.RPT Various Report file
.RTF Rich Text Format file
.RWZ Microsoft Outlook rules wizard file
Sensitive Eccentric
S
.SAV File that usually contains saved information such as a saved game.
.SC2 Maps used in Sim City 2000.

.SCP Dialup Networking script file.
.SCR Source files for the .INI files, or sometimes may be used as screen savers.
.SD Sound Designer I audio file
.SD2 Sound Designer II flattened file / Sound Designer II data fork file / SAS database file
.SDA StarOffice drawing file / SoftCuisine data archive
.SDC StarOffice spreadsheet
.SDD StarOffice presentation
.SDF Standard data format file / Schedule data file / System file format / Autodesk mapguide spatial data file
.SDK Roland S-series floppy disk image
.SDL SmartDraw library
.SDN Small archive
.SDR SmartDraw drawing
.SDS StarOffice chart file / Raw MIDI sample dump standard file
.SDT SmartDraw template
.SDV Semicolon divided value file
.SDW Sun Microsystems StarOffice file document file similar to the Microsoft Office .DOC file.
.SDX MIDI sample dump standard files compacted by SDX
.SEA Short for Self Extracting Archive. Compressed file used with the Macintosh.
.SH Archive file
.SH3 Harvard (now Serif) presentation file
.SHB Corel Background file
.SHG Hotspot Editor Hypergraphic
.SHK Macintosh Compressed Archive file
.SHM WordPerfect Shell Macro
.SHP 3D Studio Shapes File / other 3D related file
.SHR Archive file
.SHS Shell scrap object file
.SHW Corel presentation / WordPerfect Slide Show / Show File
.SLK Multiplan file.
.SND Sound Clip file / Raw unsigned PCM data / AKAI MPC-series sample / NeXT sound / Macintosh sound resource file
.SNG MIDI song
.SNM Netscape Mail
.SNO SNOBOL program file
.SNP Snapview snapshot file
.SUM Summary file.
.SWF Macromedia Flash file.
.SWP Extension used for the Windows Swap File usually Win386.Swp. This file is required by Windows and generally can grow very large in size sometimes up to several hundred megs. This file is used to swap information between currently running programs and or memory. If this file is deleted from the computer Windows will be unable to load and will need to be reinstalled.
.SYS System and peripheral drivers.
T
.TDF Trace Definition File used with OS/2
.TGA Targa file
.TIF Tag Image Format that includes most 24-bit color.
.TLB Remote automation truelib files / OLE type library / Visual C++ type library
.TLD Tellix file
.TLE NASA two-line element set
.TLP Microsoft project timeline fie

.TLT Trellix web design file
.TLX Trellix data file
.TMP Temporary files.
.TRM Windows Terminal.
.TXT Text file that can be read from windows of from DOS by using the Edit, Type, or Edlin.
U
.UNI MikMod (UniMod) format file / Forcast Pro data file
.UNK Unknown file type, sometimes used when a file is received that cannot be identified
.UNX Text file generally associated with UNIX.

.URL File used with some browsers such as Internet Explorer linking you to different web pages. Internet Shortcut.
V
.VB VBScript file
.VBA vBase file
.VBD ActiveX file
.VBE VBScript encoded script file
.VBG Visual Basic group project file
.VBK VisualCADD backup file
.VBL User license control file
.VBP Visual Basic project file
.VBR Remote automation registration files
.VBS Microsoft Visual Basic Script file for quick programs and in some cases can be used as a virus file.
.VBW Visual Basic project workplace
.VBX Visual Basic extension file
.VBZ Wizard launch file
.VC VisiCalc Spreadsheet file.
.VCD VisualCADD Drawing file.
.VCE Natural MicroSystems voice file.
.VCF vCard File / Vevi Configuration file.
.VCS Microsoft Outlook vCalander file.

.VCT FoxPro class library.
.VCW Microsoft Visual C++ workbench information file.

.VCX FoxPro class library.
.VDA Targa bitmap
.VDD Short for Virtual Device Driver. Additional information can be found here.

.VDO VDOScript file
.VDX No such file extension - Likely you meant to .vxd
.VM Virtual Machine / Virtual Memory file.
.VMM Virtual Machine (Memory Manager) file.
.VMF Ventura font characteristics file / FaxWorks audio file
.VMH
.VS2 Roland-Bass transfer file.
.VSD Visio drawing.
.VSL GetRight download list file.
.VSS Visio stencil.
.VST Video Template / Truevision Vista graphic / Targa Bitmap/
.VSW Visio workspace file.
.VXD Windows system driver file allowing a driver direct access to the Windows Kernel, allowing for low level access to hardware.
W
.WAB Microsoft Outlook Express personal address book.

.WAD File first found in IdSoftware games such as DOOM, Quake, as well as most new games similar to these.
.WAV Sound files in Windows open and played with sound recorder.

.WB1 Quattro Pro Notebook
.WB2 Quattro Pro Spreadsheet
.WBF Microsoft Windows Batch File

.WBK Wordperfect document / workbook
.WBT Winbatch batch file
.WCD Wordperfect macro token list
.WCM Microsoft Works data transmission file / Wordperfect Macro

.WCP Wordperfect product information description
.WDB Microsoft Works database

.WEB Web source code file
.WFM dBASE Form object
.WFN CorelDRAW font
.WFX Winfax data file
.WG1 Lotus 1-2-3 worksheet

.WG2 Lotus 1-2-3 for OS/2 worksheet

.WID Ventura publisher width table
.WIN Foxpro - dBASE window file
.WIZ Microsoft Publisher page wizard

.WK1 Lotus 1-2-3 all versions / LotusWorks spreadsheet.

.WK3 Lotus 1-2-3 for Windows /Lotus 1-2-3 Rel.3.

.WKS Lotus 1-2-3 Rel lA,2.0,2.01, also file used with Microsoft Works.

.WLG Dr. Watson log file.

.WMA Windows Media Audio file.
.WMF Windows Metafile. Also see WMF dictionary definition.

.WMZ Windows Media Player theme package file.
.WPD WordPerfect Windows/DOS.
.WPG WordPerfect Graphical files Windows/DOS.
.WPM WordPerfect Macro file.
.WPS MS Works word processor Windows/DOS.
.WRI Windows Write.
.WRK Lotus 1-2 31.0,1.01,1.1/ Symphony 1,1.01.
.WRI Symphony l.1,1.2,2 / Microsoft Write file.
X
.XIF Wang image file / Xerox image file
.XLB Microsoft Excel File.

.XLS Microsoft Excel File.

.XM Sound file / Fast tracker 2 extended module
.XML Extensible markup language file.
.XNK Exchange shortcut
.XOT Xnetech job output file
.XPM X picsmap graphic
.XQT SuperCalc macro sheet
.XRF Cross Reference
.XR1 Epic MegaGames Xargon File

.XSL XML Style sheet
.XSM LEXIS-NEXIS tracker
.XTB LocoScript external translation table
.XWD X Windows dump file

.XWF Yamaha XG Works file
.XXE Xxencoded file
.XY XYWrite text file
.XY3 XYWrite text file
.XY4 XYwrite IV document
.XYP XYwrite III plus document
.XYW XYwrite Windows 4.0 document
Y
.Y Amiga YABBA compressed file archive
.Y01 Paradox index file
.Y02 Paradox index file
.Y03 Paradox index file
.Y04 Paradox index file
.Y05 Paradox index file
.Y06 Paradox index file
.Y07 Paradox index file
.Y08 Paradox index file
.Y09 Paradox index file
.YUV Yuv graphics file
.YZ YAC compressed file archive.
Z
.Z Compressed file that can hold thousands of files. To extract all the files Pkzip or Winzip will need to be used. UNIX / Linux users use the compress / uncompress command to extract these files.
.ZIP Compressed file that can hold thousands of files. To extract all the files Pkzip or Winzip will need to be used.

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