Rootkit (virus,malware)

A rootkit is a stealthy type of malicious software(Malware) designed to hide the existence of certain process or program from normal methods of detection and enables continued.
rootkit is a concatenation of root and the world kit
what rootkit virus  can do?
first attacker installs a rootkit on a computer after first root level access.either by exploiting known vulnerability or by obtaining a password
Once a rootkit is installed, it allows an attacker to mask the ongoing intrusion and maintain privileged access to the computer by circumventing normal authentication and authorization mechanisms.


How rootkit can Work ?
rootkit detection is difficult because rootkit may be able to subvert the software that is indeed to find it. Detection methods include using an alternative.
behavioral based methods, signature scanning , difference scanning and memory dump analysis.
Removable can be complicated or practically impossible,especially in cases where the rootkit resides.
Provide an attacker with full access via backdoor.Permitting unauthorized access .
Password stealing
Appropriate the compromised machine as a Zombie computer for attacks on other computers.
Zombie computers are typically member of large botnet that can launch denial of service attacks and distribute E-mail spam.

Rootkit (virus,Malware)


Processor History


This was the very first ARM processor(April 1985). It was the First Commercial RISC processor.It was “ Working Silicon” in it’s first incarnation.Used less than 25000 Transistors.



Improvements that can MUL and MLA Instructions allowed for real time digital processing.

Acorn could gladly announce to the world that they offered the fastest RISC processor Around. And for a long time was right up there in the “fastest processor” listing .

The ARM2 processor was the first to be used within the RISC OS platform, in the A305,A310,and A4x0 range.

It is an 8MHz processor that was used on all of the early machines,Including the A3000.

The ARM 2 is clocked at 8MHz, Which translates to approximately four and half million instruction per second(0.56 MIPS/MHz).



Built in 1989, this processor offering 4K of cache memory and the SWP instruction. The desktop computers based upon it were  lunched in 1990.

CP15 was created to provide processor control and identification.


ARM3 doesn't perform faster both the ARM2 and ARM3 average 0.56 MIPS/MHz The speed boost common from the higher clock speed, and the cache.


ARM 250 (v2as)

The ‘Electron” of ARM processors, this is basically a second level revision of the ARM 3 design which removes the cache, and combines the primary chipset into to piece of silicon, making the creation of a cheap .(RISC OS)

This was clocked at 12MHz and offered approximately 7MIPS.


ARM 250 mezzanine

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ARM 4 and ARM 5

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ARM 610 (v3)


The first 32 bit addressing, and the opening for a new generation of ARM based Hardware.


ARM 710(v3)

Offers increased cache size (8k rather than 4k) clock frequency increased to 40MHz, improved write buffer and larger TLB in the MMU

It supports CMOS/TTL inputs,fastbus and 3.3 v power .

clocked  at 40MHz ,it offers about 36 MIPS, faster than ARM610(when combined with additional Clock speed).


ARM 7500


The ARM 7500 is a RISC based single chip computer with memory and I/O control on chip to minimise  external components.The ARM 7500 can drive LCD panel/VDU.

It features power managements.The video controller can output up to a 120MHz pixel rate. 32 bit sound .

First four A/D convertors on chip for connection of joysticks

The processor core is basically an ARM710 with a smaller(4k) Cache.

The video Core is a VIDC2

The IO core is based upon the IOMD.



ARM 7500FE,Strong ARM/SA 110(v4),SA1100 Variant And more …

Now the latest 64 bit and quad core , new 12 core .. and many more the future , 128 bit , etc

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Mac OS X Booting

Here , I am just pointing about how to boot MAC OS .

Little Talk about FIRMWARE , The firmware is not pare of MAC OS X, but it plays an important role in the operation of the machine.


Open Firmware :

Open firmware is a non proprietary, Platform (CPU and System) independent boot firmware, similar to a PC’s BIOS, Open Firmware is stored in ROM and is the first stored program to be executed upon power UP. Apple and SUN are two prominent computer system makers that use implementations of open firmware in their systems.

The Firmware is implemented in forth programming language, and stored in the ROM as Code byte code,Device drivers that are required during system Startup are also implemented similarly, such drivers usually exist in the expansion ROM of expansion cards that are needed before the operating system has loaded.


() Open firmware by pressing the key combination (cmd-opt-0-F)  just as you on a Macintosh.

  The cmd keys is the one with the apple logo .

   The opd key is the same as the alt key.

     You can see a welcome message and other messages and dropped into a prompt message like



0 >


you can continue booting the machine by typing (mac-boot) or shut it down by typing (shut-down).



If you want to access a MAC’s open firmware from another arbitrary computer,over the network, here is the command.


0 >  dev/packages/telnet


More details


Boot Loader


BootX(/system/library/coreservices/Bootx) is the default bootloader on MAC OS X.


BootX can load kernels from various filesystem : HFS+,HFS,UFS,ext2, and TFTP



More Boot loader Information you Can see the Source  page


Secure Computer: Mobile Malware

Secure Computer: Mobile Malware

Mobile Malware

Mobile Malware is typically targeted more toward handheld devices for which an SDK is available than those without one.SDK are more prevalent for smart phones and PDA .

How Malware Enter Into Mobile some common are :

Communication network can be used to deliver viruses and other forms of malware to handheld devices.

Malware May also received during synchronization with desktop computers and via tainted storage Media.

Internet Downloads  A user may download an infected file via an internet connection. (GAME,APPLICATION(freeware,shareware) ) , If they contain vulnerabilities that can be exploited by malware.

Messaging services malware attachments can be appended to electronic mail and sms messages delivered to a devices.

Bluetooth Communication  can be delivered (malware) by engaging the available connectivity services supported by a device left in discoverable mode.


with all of these Delivery methods , the user usually has to give consent for the malware to install and execute.Malware writers use social engineering techniques to get users to carry out the necessary actions.


What can Do Malware ?

Malware may potentially eavesdrop on user input or otherwise steal sensitive information, destroy stored information. or disable a device.

Malware may also accumulate wireless communications fees against a subscriber. (sending sms,initiating calls to chargeable toll numbers)




What is your Mobile ?(not number)


Your Mobile, What is Mobile ? 

Everyone know My mobile has a Bluetooth ,Media player, Camera ,wi-fi, GPS, and lalalalblblbl.. but you know what is SIM , What is Bluetooth ? What is wifi ? yeak Everyone know ,

but yet ..I have something more.


  • Cell phones and PDAs are somewhat Similar but difference is they support one or more radio interfaces to cellular telecommunications network. they also have different heritages.
  • Early cell phones appeared in the U.S in 1978 when AT&T conducted field trials authorized by the federal communications commission in Chicago and Newark, new jersey.
  • The device had the size and weight of a brick and were limited to voice communications.
  • Now you know your mobile .


About Bluetooth

  •          Bluetooth is a Personal Area Network(PAN). (2.4 GHz range over short distance) . for a new versions its more

Secure your Bluetooth bluetooth

  • Authentication : to verify the identity of communicating devices, only devices that properly authenticate can engage in communications.( some people can use without authentication setting that can harm both your mobile and your privacy ).
  • Confidentiality : To prevent information exposure from eavesdropping only authorized devices can view data.


Pairing is the process that allows two Bluetooth devices to associate themselves with one another by generating shred link authentication key of use in future communications.


How Cell Phone can Communicate ?

Cellular provide coverage based on dividing a large geographical service area into smaller areas of coverage called cells.

As a mobile phone moves from one cell to another, a cellular arrangement requires active connections to be monitored and effectively passed along between cells to maintain the connection.


Types of Network


Code Division Multiple Access(CDMA)

Global System For Mobile Communication(GSM)


Time Division Multiple Access(TDMA).

Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN).

Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service (D-AMPS) .



What is SIM (Subscriber Identity Module)

In Mobile phones devices that interoperate with GSM cellular networks .Under The GSM framework , a Cellular phone is referred to as a mobile station and is partitioned into two distinct components . The Subscriber Identity Module(SIM) and the Mobile Equipment(ME).

Sim Photo    brando-unlocking-sim

As the name implies SIM is removable component that contains essential information about the subscriber including the subscriber's assigned international mobile subscriber (IMSI).The Me , the remaining Radio remaining radio handset portion, cannot function fully without one.


SIM ‘s main function entails authenticating the cell phones to the network to gain access to subscribed service to the user.

The SIM Also provide  storage for personal information, such as phone book entries and text messages, Services related information.


More about SIM soon Visit



EULA What’s this ?

You all Know computer viruses,Trojan horses,worms ,identity theft and phishing scams and you’re taking the necessary steps when using internet . however That item is the end user license agreement (EULA) covering the software you use.

These agreements themselves can’t harm you or your computer. In fact EULAs can do just the opposite they highlight things that can put you at risk. The harm comes from ignoring EULA’s and the subtle warnings they might contain.

        Ignoring EULAs can expose your computer to security risks.

        Ignoring EULAs can put your privacy at risk.

for instance A EULA might require you to allow the software publisher or third party to collect information about your internet activity in exchange for use of he software. This information could include not only the web sites you visit ,but also information you supply in online transactions .(name, address,credit card number etc)

Careful read and understating EULA covering software before you install it, you can make an informed decision.


What is EULA ?


A EULA is a legal contact between you and the software publisher.It spell out the terms and conditions for using the software.

it might say you can only install the software on one computer for your personal use.

However , it might also say that by using the software you agree to third party monitoring or allowing other user to access parts of your computer.

Eula Agreement Details

For more Free Download  EULA.pdf


Secure wireless network

  • Make your Wireless network invisible
  • Rename your wireless Network.
  • Encrypt Your Network Traffic.
  • Change your Administrator Password.(no birth date,car/bike number,mobile number, use character number and special character )
  • Use file Sharing with Caution.
  • Keep your Access point software Patched and Up to date
  • Check your internet Provider’s wireless Security options.

Wireless Technology Risks And How to Secure Wireless

First lets talks about some of the threats to home wireless networks.


Piggybacking  :

                               That’s common anyone with a wireless enabled computer within range or your wireless access point can hop a free ride on the internet over your wireless connection.

The typical indoor broadcast range of an access point is 150-300 feet. and outdoor range may extend as far 1000 feet.

so, if your neighborhood is closely settled ,or if you live in an apartment or hostel,’s number of problems.


_> You may exceed the number of connections permitted by your internet service provider.

_> User piggybacking on your internet connection might use up your bandwidth and slow your connection.

_> Abuse by malicious users , Illegal activity that will be traced to you. can lot more….

_> Direct Attack on your computer can install spyware and other malicious program or take control of your computer.


What is Wardriving


Warddriving is a specific kind of piggybacking .The broadcast range of a wireless access point can make internet connection possible outside your home, even as far away as your street. can be directly attack your computer as piggybacking also for illegal online activity .


Secure your Wireless connection .


Wolf - 150 x 150